Leaffeeding and flower thrips deposit eggs into plants through an egglaying apparatus called an ovipositor. Both larvae and adults feed gregariously along midribs, veins and stems, particularly at bud terminals, leaving numerous scars. Proceedings of the association for plant protection of kyushu, 29. Biology and economic importance of flower thrips 3 figure 6.
Pear thrips, a known orchard pest of europe and the western united states and canada has recently become a major defoliator of hardwood trees in vermont and the. Palm melon thrips, thrips palmi karny thripidae, is highly polyphagous, and populations can build quickly on potato. In the past 30 years, western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis. In recent years, melon thrips has spread from southeast asia to most of the rest of asia, and to many pacific ocean islands, north africa, australia, central and south america, and the caribbean. Most of these vector species are extremely polyphagous, feeding on both vegetative parts of plant and on pollen. Thrips in greenhouse crops biology, damage and management. Both larvae and adults feed gregariously along midribs, veins and stems, particularly at bud terminals, leaving numerous scars and deformities and finally killing the plant. Take a dark piece of paper into the garden and knock the onion tops against it. However, western flower thrips is the predominant species and the most difficult to. Buy thrips biology and management paperback softback by isbn.
Of the approximately 5,000 species so far identified, only a few hundred are crop pests, causing serious damage or transmitting diseases to growing crops and harvestable produce in most countries. Thrips are a major pest of greenhouse crops in ontario. As spring flowers senesce, crop fields become islands for. They feed by puncturing the epidermal outer layer of host tissue and sucking out the cell contents, which results in stippling, discolored flecking, or silvering of the leaf surface. Thrips biology and management nato science series a. Thrips in the suborder terebrantia always lay eggs, as do most thrips in the more advanced suborder tubulifera.
Identification and biology thrips are generally very small up to 2 millimeters mm, or 110 inches, in length and their colors range from pale yellow. The main purpose of this book is to complement the hitherto largely descriptive works on the order thysanoptera, by presenting thrips as living animals, stressing the behavior of individuals and populations, their varied and complex relationships with plants, other animals and the physical components of their abundance in undisturbed and in cultivated habitats, and in cultivated economic. The melon thrips, thrips palmi, is an introduced pest in hawaii and several other island localities in the pacific basin. The western flower thrips is the most efficient vector of tomato spotted wilt virus.
This virus is one of about twenty known species of tospoviruses pappu et al. Thrips biology and management from summerfield books. Thrips do invade homes, possibly brought in on potted plants, and some species have been known to bite humans. Pear thrips, a known orchard pest of europe and the western united states and canada has recently become a major defoliator of hardwood trees in vermont and the neighboring states. Although thrips are globally important crop pests and vectors of viral disease, species identifications are difficult because of their small size and inconspicuous morphological differences.
Spray the plants twice, three days apart, and the thrips should disappear. Thripidae is a polyphagous plant pest, especially of species in the. A ratio of one minute pirate bug per 180 thrips is adequate to result in suppression of thrips. Fresh leaves 10g were cut and immersed in a 100 ml bidistilled hexane 24 h. Impact of insecticides and a predatory mite on melon thrips, thrips palmi karny. Managing thrips in pepper and eggplant 2 mellinger 2009, weiss et al. Of the approximately 5,000 species so far identified, only a few hundred are crop pests, causing serious damage or. Of the 5000 or so species of thrips, only 17 species, all in the family thripidae, are reported as vectors of plant viruses table 12. Thrips palmi is a vector of capsicum chlorosis virus cacv in australia. General information about thrips palmi thripl eppo global database. Novel insights into mitochondrial gene rearrangement in thrips insecta. Thripidae, is a pest in commercially produced onion allium cepa l.
Thrips feed on woody plants throughout their growing seasons, including the azalea, ardisia, dogwood, gardenia, hibiscus, magnolia, maple, palm and viburnum throughout the growing season. Radcliffe, abdelaziz lagnaoui, in potato biology and biotechnology, 2007. Thrips palmi has spread from its presumed origin, the island of sumatra, to the coast of. Ecology and control of thrips infesting fruit vegetables.
Parker, 9781489914118, available at book depository with free delivery worldwide. One of the most important aspects of western flower thrips biology is its polyphagy. Thrips palmi has spread from its presumed origin, the island of sumatra, to the coast of florida, and threatens to extend its distribution throughout north and south america. Many species feed within the plant buds or curled leaves, so they can be very difficult to detect. Seasonal prevalence of thrips palmi karny on cucumber and aubergine in a plastic greenhouse in japan. Ms thesis, university of hawaii, department of entomology. Parker, 97803064506, available at book depository with free delivery worldwide. Epidemics of tomato spotted wilt virus occur frequently in. Part of the nato asi series book series nssa, volume 276.
Thrips are tiny insects with fringed wings that can range in size from 0. The editors are to be congratulated in compiling this volume which should not be missing from the bookshelf of any thysanopterist, agronomist or entomologist, encountering this unusual but fascinating order of insects. Speed of development of thrips palmi at various temperatures, in japan. The leaves were collected and placed in plastic bags, sealed and transported to the laboratory. The melon thrips, thrips palmi karny, is a major pest of vegetables and some other important crops. Thrips, order thysanoptera, are tiny, slender insects with fringed wings. Nato science series a thrips biology and management. Biology and control of thrips on seedling cotton thrips are the smallest of all cotton insect pests with an overall body length of less than onetwelfth of an inch. Biology and pest status of western flower thrips 7 biology and ecology of the western flower thrips thysanoptera. Thrips palmi can only be distinguished with certainty from other species of thrips by means of laboratory examination. There are about 5000 described species of thrips insects in the order thysanoptera 1,2. Thrips tabaci lindeman is cosmopolitan, feeding on at least 140 species from over 40 families of plants. Thripidae and aphis gossypii brazilian archives of biology and technology 363 municipalities.
Thrips are small hemimetabolic insects with a distinctive cigarshaped body plan. The melon thrips can cause damage to a wide range of glasshouse ornamental and vegetable crops, particularly plants in the families cucurbitaceae and solanaceae, such as cucumber, aubergine, tomato and sweet pepper. Thrips fhysanoptera are very small insects, widespread throughout the world with a preponderance of tropical species, many temperate ones, and even a few living in arctic regions. A number of thrips species are commonly found including western flower thrips frankliniella occidentalis, eastern flower thrips frankliniella tritici, onion thrips thrips tabaci, and echinothrips. Pf1018, a novel insecticidal compound produced by humicola sp. Jun 21, 20 thrips biology and management by bruce l. The complete mitochondrial genome of melon thrips, thrips palmi. The melon thrips, thrips palmi is a serious pest and vector for plant viruses on a. Transcriptomewide responses of adult melon thrips thrips palmi. Numbers increase rapidly in the spring on the abundant wild plant hosts. Dna barcode region has proven effective for the identification of species in many groups of insect pests. The main purpose of this book is to complement the hitherto largely descriptive works on the order thysanoptera, by presenting thrips as living animals, stressing the behaviour of individuals and populations, their varied and complex relationships with plants, other animals and the physical components of their abundance in undisturbed and in cultivated habitats, and in cultivated economic.
Biology and management of thrips university of georgia. Thrips, their biology, ecology and economic importance. Despite their small size, these insects have the potential to cause yield reductions of more than 100 pounds of lint per acre. Hatching of eggs within the female ovoviparity, occurs in some highly evolved members of the tubulifera. They are elongated with transversely constricted bodies. A couple of treatments with insecticidal soap kills them. This book provides a general scientific introduction to the termites, including their biology. The study first time reports the embryonic development of t. How to control and get rid of thrips in your garden. Within a glasshouse context, species that might be confused with t. Although thrips have wings, they are not strong flyers.
In pepper, 2 or 3 thrips larvae and adults per flower or fruit is tolerable. It brings together a vast amount of modern work set against a wealth of background knowledge, covering basic biology, ecology, applied science and pest control. This book, containing contributions from several world authorities from europe, the usa and asia, is the most comprehensive treatise on thrips as crop pests ever to be published. If thrips populations are not controlled, affected flowering plants may lose their ability to produce. Thrips fhysanoptera are very small insects, widespread thr. Thrips are a diverse group of hemimetabolous insects that have a range of diets consisting of both plant and animal prey, depending on the species in question.
Eggs are elongated, oval to kidney shaped, faintly to distinctly sculptured, and, as is the case in other minute insects, are. Identify and get rid of thrips control garden pests. Factors affecting herbivory of thrips palmi thysanoptera. Dna barcode analysis of thrips thysanoptera diversity in.
Biology and ecology of the western flower thrips thysanoptera. Impact and economic threshold of thrips tabaci on onions. Thrips feeding is usually accompanied by black varnishlike flecks of frass excrement. The western flower thrips is the most widespread and troublesome thrips for british columbia growers, but other species can also be serious pests. Melon thrips, thrips palmi karny, are a major pest of vegetables, but they sometimes attack other landscape and. The species that feed on higher plants occur mostly in the family thripidae.234 432 185 558 1127 407 905 1145 101 353 1313 134 585 1334 1201 273 669 1525 1048 908 1402 300 192 1398 283 887 497 596 61